Famasi A-Z



Allergies refer to the hypersensitive reaction of the immune system to certain foreign substances that are otherwise harmless to most people. When you come in contact with an allergen, your body produces antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies attach themselves to mast cells which are present in different tissues throughout your body like the nose, lungs, skin, and gut.

When an allergen comes in contact with the IgE-coated mast cells, it triggers the release of chemical mediators like histamine, which leads to allergic symptoms like itching, redness, swelling, and wheezing. There are different types of allergies based on their cause. Some common types of allergies include food allergies, pollen allergies, pet allergies, and drug allergies.

Allergy and Immunology

Allergy and immunology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of conditions caused by allergies. Allergies are overreactions of the immune system to substances that are typically harmless, such as pollen or dust. Immunology is the study of the immune system, which is the body's natural defense against infection and disease.

People with allergies may experience symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, itching, watery eyes, and difficulty breathing. Allergy and immunology specialists can help identify the cause of these symptoms and develop a treatment plan to relieve them. In some cases, allergy shots may be recommended to help reduce the severity of reactions.


Anaesthesiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the management of pain and anaesthesia. It is a critical aspect of modern medicine, as it allows for safe and effective surgery. Anaesthesiologists are trained in both the medical and surgical aspects of care, and work closely with surgeons to ensure that patients remain comfortable and safe during surgery.

In addition to their roles in the operating room, anaesthesiologists also provide pain management services to patients who are suffering from chronic pain conditions. They work with patients to develop individualized pain management plans that may include medication, physical therapy, and other interventions. Anaesthesiologists also play a vital role in emergency care, as they are often responsible for managing pain and anaesthesia in patients who have been injured or are suffering from a medical condition.


Antibacterial medications are drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria, by killing them off or preventing them from multiplying. Antibacterial drugs can be given by mouth, injected into a vein, or applied to the skin. Some are used to treat common infections, such as ear infections, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. Others are used to treat more serious infections, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and tuberculosis.


Antibiotics are medications that work to fight bacteria in the body. They can prevent infection before it occurs, such as before surgery. Some antibiotics work by killing the bacteria outright, while others work by stopping the bacteria from growing and spreading.


Antidepressants are a class of medications used to treat mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. They work by correcting the chemical imbalance in the brain that is thought to be responsible for these conditions. Antidepressants are usually taken daily and may take several weeks to work. Common side effects include headaches, nausea, and dry mouth. Some antidepressants can also cause sexual side effects.


Antifungal medications are used to treat fungal infections. These can be either outer body infections, such as athlete’s foot or jock itch, or deep-seated infections, such as candidiasis. They work by interfering with the ability of the fungus to grow and reproduce, and they can be classified according to their chemical structure, mode of action, or spectrum of activity.


An antioxidant is a type of drug that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can cause oxidative stress, which has been linked to a number of health problems. Antioxidants work by scavenging free radicals and neutralising them before they can do any damage. They can be found in a variety of foods and supplements. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.


Anxiety is a feeling of unease, such as worry or fear, that can be mild or severe. Everyone feels anxious at some point in their life, but for some people, anxiety can be a problem. It can make it hard to function on a day-to-day basis and can even lead to physical symptoms.There are different types of anxiety disorders, each with its own set of symptoms. Some of the most common include generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic disorder.With proper treatment, most people with anxiety disorders can manage their symptoms and live normal, productive lives.


These are substances used to increase sexual desire, which may be natural or artificial. Natural aphrodisiacs include certain foods, herbs, drinks, spices, and scents. Artificial aphrodisiacs include drugs and hormones. While some aphrodisiacs are backed by science, others are more myth than fact. Learn more


Arrhythmia is a medical term used to describe an irregularity in the rhythm of the heartbeat. The heart may beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular pattern. Arrhythmia can be temporary or chronic, and can range from mild to life-threatening. Factors causing it can range from underlying medical conditions, and lifestyle choices, to medications. Treatment for arrhythmia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Most times, treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications.


Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. It causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning. Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts in childhood. Learn more


Back Pain

Back pain is a common condition that can lead to mild discomfort or severe pain due to injury, strenuous activity, or poor posture, among other factors. Treatment for back pain typically depends on the underlying cause. You can use ice, over-the-counter, prescription pain relievers or simply rest to get rid of back pain. Sometimes, massage therapy or physical therapy may be recommended.


Beriberi is a condition that occurs due to a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). It typically affects the nervous system and can cause symptoms such as weakness, pain, and paralysis. Treatment for beriberi typically includes taking thiamine supplements and eating foods that are high in thiamine. In severe cases, hospitalisation may be necessary. With treatment, most people with beriberi make a full recovery.

Birth Control

Birth control is the use of various devices, sexual practises, hormones, or drugs to prevent pregnancy or space out the timing of pregnancies, among others. Both men and women can use birth control. There are several types of birth control today, including hormonal methods, barrier methods, IUDs, and sterilisation. Learn more

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force of the blood against the walls of your arteries. When your heart beats, it pumps blood through your arteries to the rest of your body. The blood pressure is highest when the heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. Between beats, when the heart relaxes, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure. Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers.

Usually, the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number: for example, 120/80 mmHg (millimetres of mercury). High blood pressure can damage your arteries and lead to problems like heart attacks, strokes, and kidney disease.



Calcium is an essential mineral that your body needs for different functions. It's best known for its role in helping to build and maintain strong bones and teeth, but it's also important for muscle contraction, nerve function, and blood clotting. Most of the calcium in your body is stored in the bones and teeth, where it provides structural support. The rest is found in the bloodstream, where it plays a vital role in many of the body's processes.

You can get calcium from your diet by consuming dairy products like milk, cheese, and yoghurt or by eating foods that are rich in calcium such as leafy green vegetables, fish with edible bones (such as sardines), and certain types of beans. You can also get calcium from supplements, but it's best to get it from food sources first.


Cardiac is a term used to qualify the heart. Any medications used to treat heart conditions and improve heart function are known as cardiac medications. They can be used to treat a wide range of heart conditions, including arrhythmias, heart failure, and high blood pressure.

Cardiac medications can also prevent heart problems after a heart attack or surgery. Some cardiac medications work by decreasing the amount of work the heart has to do. Others help the heart pump more efficiently, control the rhythm of the heartbeat, reduce the risk of blood clots, or clear blocked arteries.


Care is the provision of services to people who need assistance. It is a broad term that can encompass a wide range of services, for instance, health care. It also involves feelings of compassion, empathy, and concern for others. When we care for someone, we want to make sure they are healthy, happy, and safe.


A caregiver is someone who provides essential care and support to a patient, helping them recover from illness, manage chronic health conditions, and maintain their overall health and wellbeing. Caregivers can be family members, friends, or professional caregivers.

Professional caregivers are those who are trained and experienced in providing care to others. They may work in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, nursing homes, or home health agencies. They typically have specialised knowledge about the caregiving process and are able to provide a higher level of care than those without training.

Care Specialist

A care specialist is a medical professional who provides care and support to patients with mild or chronic health conditions. They work with patients and their families to develop individualised care plans that meet the unique needs of each patient. They also work closely with other members of the healthcare team to ensure that each patient receives the highest quality of care possible.

Care specialists are often able to offer  patients and their families a more personal level of care than is possible with other medical professionals. This is because they are able to build long-term relationships with their patients and get to know them on a more personal level. This allows them to better understand the unique needs of each patient and develop care plans that are tailored specifically to those needs.


A cataract is a clouding of the lens in your eye that can cause blurred vision. Cataracts usually develop slowly and don't disturb your vision early on. Over time, they tend to become denser and increasingly blur your vision. It can occur in either or both eyes. It's common to have trouble seeing at night when the light is low. You may also have a glare from bright lights and difficulty distinguishing between certain colours.


When it comes to medications, the term "cell" refers to the smallest unit of a living organism. Medications that contain cells are often used to treat diseases or disorders that affect the function of specific cells. For example, cell-based medications can be used to treat cancer by targeting and destroying cancer cells. Additionally, cell-based medications can be used to repair damaged tissue or organs by providing healthy new cells.


Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium “Chlamydia trachomatis”. It can infect both men and women, and can cause symptoms such as abnormal discharge, pain during urination, and burning or itching in the genital area. If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Treatment for chlamydia is typically done with antibiotics.


Cholesterol is a type of lipid, or fat, that is found in the blood. It is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes, and it plays a role in many important biological processes. However, too much cholesterol in the blood can be harmful, it can lead to atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis can cause heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Medications that are used to treat high cholesterol are called "statins" and they work by inhibiting the enzyme involved in cholesterol production. This helps to lower cholesterol levels in the blood.

Chronic pain

Chronic pain is defined as pain that lasts for more than 12 weeks. It can be caused by an injury, a health condition, or a previous surgery. Chronic pain can make it difficult to perform everyday activities and can interfere with your quality of life. There are many treatments available to help manage chronic pain, including medications.There are two main types of medications used to treat chronic pain: analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Analgesics are drugs that relieve pain without affecting other body functions. Anti-inflammatory drugs are drugs that reduce inflammation (swelling) and pain.


Collaboration is working together to accomplish a common goal. It involves communication, coordination and sharing resources. When people collaborate, they pool their knowledge, skills and abilities to achieve a common goal.There are many benefits to collaboration. It can lead to better decision-making, more innovative solutions and improved efficiency. Collaboration also fosters team building and camaraderie.

Combination Therapy

Combination therapy can be defined as the use of two or more treatment methods to treat a single condition. It is often more effective than using a single drug to treat a condition. Combination therapy has several benefits, including the ability to target multiple areas of the body and the potential for reducing side effects.

Additionally, it can help to improve patient compliance, as it may be easier for patients to take multiple medications than to remember to take a single medication. However, there are also some risks associated with this type of therapy, including the potential for interactions between the drugs and the possibility of increased side effects. Therefore, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of combination therapy with a healthcare provider before starting any.


Condoms are thin pouches of latex, polyurethane, or polyisoprene that are used during sex to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It keeps sperm from entering the vagina. They're inexpensive, easy to find, and available without a prescription. Learn more


Contraceptives are devices or medications used to prevent pregnancy. There are different contraceptives, including condoms, diaphragms, intrauterine devices (IUDs), birth control pills, and contraceptive patches or rings. Contraceptives work by preventing the sperm from fertilising the egg. Learn more

Customer Obsession

Customer obsession is the belief that businesses should always put customer’s needs first, above all else. When it comes to healthcare, customer obsession is key. It emphasises on the need to always be focused on your customers and their needs, wants, and desires. By putting your customers first, you can ensure that you are providing them with the best possible experience and products or services.



Dermatologists are medical professionals who specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the skin, hair, and nails. They provide care for a wide variety of skin conditions, from acne and eczema to psoriasis and skin cancer.

Dermatologists also provide cosmetic services, such as laser surgery, Botox injections, and fillers. They may also perform Mohs surgery, a specialised type of surgery used to treat skin cancer.

Detox Bitters

Detox bitters are a type of herbal remedy that is commonly used to help promote detoxification and digestion. They are typically made with a combination of bitter herbs and roots, such as dandelion, burdock, ginger, and milk thistle. These ingredients are believed to have cleansing and detoxifying properties that can help the body eliminate toxins and waste products more effectively. Learn more

Detox Tea

Detox tea is a type of herbal tea with various health benefits, including promoting weight loss and improving digestion. It typically contains a combination of herbs, such as dandelion, ginger, and green tea. It is believed to help the body rid itself of toxins and promote better overall health.


Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) health condition that affects how your body turns food into energy. When this condition occurs, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use its own insulin as well as it should. When there isn’t enough insulin — or when cells are resistant to insulin — too much sugar builds up in your bloodstream. Over time, having too much sugar in your blood can cause serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, gums, and teeth. Diabetes is usually diagnosed by taking a fasting blood sugar (glucose) test. Learn more

Diagnostic Radiology

Diagnostic radiology is the branch of medicine that uses imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs, to diagnose and treat diseases. It is a vital part of the healthcare system, as it helps doctors to quickly and accurately identify health problems so that patients can receive the treatment they need.

Radiologists use a variety of imaging modalities to visualise the inside of the body and look for signs of disease. X-rays are the most common type of diagnostic radiologic exam, and are often used to detect broken bones or pneumonia. CT scans use multiple X-rays to create cross-sectional images of the body, which can be helpful in diagnosing cancers or other abnormalities.

Doorstep Delivery

Doorstep delivery is a term used to describe the process of delivering goods or services directly to a customer's door. It is a convenient way to get your items without having to leave your home or office. The process eliminates the need to go to the store and stand in line, and it's mostly used for items that are time-sensitive or need to be delivered on a specific day.


Emergency Medicine

Emergency medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses and injuries that require immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians are trained to deal with a wide variety of medical conditions, from heart attacks and strokes to car accidents and gunshot wounds.

These physicians must be able to think on their feet and make quick decisions in order to save lives. They also need to be able to deal with high levels of stress and have excellent communication skills. Emergency medicine includes subspecialities like medical toxicology, critical care medicine, disaster medicine, and sports medicine.

Essential Vitamins

Essential vitamins are nutrients that the body needs to function properly. They are obtained through diet or supplementation. There are 13 essential vitamins: Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate). They play important roles in the body, including supporting immune health, vision, fertility, and bone health. They also help convert food into energy and play a role in cell growth and repair.


Family Medicine

A family medicine specialist is a medical doctor who provides comprehensive care for patients of all ages. They are trained in a wide range of medical disciplines, including paediatrics, geriatrics, and preventive medicine. They are able to diagnose and treat a wide variety of conditions, from the common cold to more complex chronic diseases.

Family medicine specialists serve as primary care providers for many patients. They provide continuity of care, which is essential for the overall health and well-being of their patients. In addition, family medicine specialists are often involved in preventive care, working to keep their patients healthy and out of the hospital.

Family Planning

Family planning is the process of making important decisions about children; whether and when to have them, and how many children to have. Family planning includes choosing whether to have an abortion, and if so, where and how to get one. It also includes using contraception to prevent pregnancy.

Fasting Blood Glucose

Fasting blood glucose (FBG) is a test that measures the level of sugar in your blood after you have fasted for at least 8 hours. It is used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. A normal FBG level is less than 100 mg/dL. A level between 100 and 125 mg/dL is considered prediabetes, while a level of 126 mg/dL or higher indicates diabetes.

Fatty Acid

Fatty acids are a type of organic acid that is made up of long chain hydrocarbons. They are found in all natural fats and oils, and are an important part of the human diet. Fatty acids have a wide range of uses in the body, including providing energy, aiding in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, and helping to maintain cell membranes.


A foetus is a prenatal stage of human development. A fertilized egg develops into a foetus over the course of nine months, from conception to birth. The fetal stage is characterized by rapid growth and development, as the baby grows from a tiny seed into a full-fledged human being.


Fever is a medical condition characterized by an elevated body temperature. It is usually caused by infection, but can also be due to inflammation or heat exposure. While fever is often a sign of illness, it can also occur in healthy individuals. Treatment for fever typically involves medications to reduce body temperature. In some cases, hospitalisation may be required.


Flu, or influenza, is a virus that can cause severe respiratory illness. Symptoms of flu include fever, coughing, and difficulty breathing. Flu can be deadly, particularly to young children and the elderly. There are several types of flu viruses, and they are constantly changing. However, the best way to prevent flu is to get vaccinated.


Food is essential to human life. It is a major source of energy that provides the nutrients the bodies need to function properly. There are different types of food, each with its own unique nutritional value. While some foods are rich in vitamins and minerals, others are high in calories and fat.

The best way to ensure you are getting all the nutrients your body needs is to eat a variety of different foods.Food is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals.


FRANCIS matrix is a project management process used to outline the roles and responsibilities of team members in Famasi. The acronym “FRANCIS” stands for Facilitate, Responsible, Accountable, Not Applicable, Consult, Inform, and Support.

We use it to describe the involvement of various roles in the completion of tasks or deliverables for a project or business process.


Fungi are a large and diverse group of organisms that can be found in nearly every habitat on Earth. They play an important role in many ecosystems, both as decomposers of dead organic matter and as agents of disease. Some fungi are edible and have been used as food sources by humans for centuries. Others are used in the production of beer, wine, and other fermented beverages.

Some fungi are capable of causing serious diseases in humans, animals, and plants. The most well-known fungal diseases include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis (thrush). Early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases is often essential to preventing serious health complications.



A gene is a sequence of DNA that codes for a specific protein or RNA molecule. They are the basic units of inheritance in living organisms. Each gene is located in a particular position on a chromosome, and it can be passed down from parent to child.The proteins and RNA molecules produced by genes play important roles in the structure and function of cells. They can also affect the way cells behave, including how they grow and divide. Mutations or changes in genes can cause diseases or other health conditions.

General Health

General health is the state of being in good physical and mental condition. It also refers to having a positive outlook on life and managing stress healthily. General health includes maintaining a balanced diet, exercising regularly, getting adequate sleep, and avoiding harmful habits like smoking and drinking too much alcohol.

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-2 is the most common form of genital herpes, although HSV-1 – which typically causes cold sores around the mouth – can also infect the genital area. There is no cure for genital herpes, but there are treatments that can help manage the symptoms. In most cases, genital herpes is a lifelong condition. If you have genital herpes, it is important to avoid sexual activity when you have active lesions or symptoms. This will help reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to another person.

Genital Wart

Genital warts are one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). They are caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV), and can occur in both men and women. Genital warts can be painful, itchy, and embarrassing. There is no cure for genital warts, but there are treatments that can help to reduce their size and symptoms.


Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images from the eye to the brain, so when it's damaged, one can start to lose vision. Glaucoma usually happens when the pressure in your eye gets too high. This extra pressure can damage the optic nerve over time.

There are two main types of glaucoma: open-angle and angle-closure. Open-angle glaucoma occurs when the drainage angle between the iris and cornea is open, but the eye pressure is still too high. Angle-closure glaucoma occurs when the iris bulges forward, narrowing or closing the drainage angle. This can cause a sudden rise in eye pressure.


Glutamine is an amino acid that plays an important role in the human body, particularly in the immune system and digestive system. Glutamine supplements are often used by athletes and bodybuilders to improve exercise performance and recovery. It can also be used to improve conditions like ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and cancer.


Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoea. Symptoms of gonorrhoea include burning during urination, increased discharge from the penis or vagina, and pain in the lower abdomen. With early diagnosis and treatment, most people make a full recovery. It can affect both men and women. Left untreated, however, gonorrhoea can cause long-term health problems such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and infertility in both men and women.



Haemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen around the body. A person's haemoglobin levels can be affected by factors like age, gender, health conditions and lifestyle factors.

Haemoglobin levels can be measured with a simple blood test. High haemoglobin levels are also problematic and can indicate a range of health conditions. Low haemoglobin levels (anaemia) can cause fatigue, shortness of breath and other symptoms. Treatment for anaemia typically involves taking iron supplements and eating a diet rich in iron-containing foods.

Heart Care

Heart care is the medical term for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases that affect the heart. It usually refers to the care provided by cardiovascular specialists, but can also include other specialists such as cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and electrophysiologists. Heart care can involve anything from lifestyle changes and medication to surgery.

Heat Pads

Heat pads are removable self-adhesive pads that can be placed on any clothing item to provide warmth. They can be used to relieve pain from muscle aches and tension headaches. They work by using a thin layer of conductive material to transfer heat from the pad to the skin. The conductive material is usually made of carbon fibre or metal foil. Heat pads are ideal for those with poor circulation or who are constantly cold.


Hepatitis is a serious condition that causes inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or other factors. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to preventing serious complications. Hepatitis can lead to liver failure and even death. There are different hepatitis, but the most common are hepatitis A, B, and C.


Heredity is the passing on of genes from one generation to the next. Genes are the units of inheritance that dictate how a person looks and functions. Heredity plays a role in many aspects of health and medicine, from determining susceptibility to certain diseases to influencing physical traits.

Medical professionals use a variety of techniques to assess an individual's heredity, including family history, genetic testing, and twin studies. Hereditary factors can be useful in diagnosing and treating conditions, as well as predicting risk for future health problems.


Herpes is a virus that can cause both oral and genital infections. The most common type of herpes is HSV-1, which usually causes oral infections, and HSV-2, which usually causes genital infections. Herpes can be spread through skin-to-skin contact like kissing, sexual intercourse (anal or vaginal sex). It can also be spread through sharing of contaminated objects, such as towels, razors, or toothbrushes.

Herpes are most contagious during an outbreak, but can also be transmitted when there are no symptoms present. Treatment for herpes includes both antiviral medications and home remedies to help relieve symptoms.


HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and it is a deadly virus that attacks the body's immune system. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, and can lead to death. There is no cure for HIV, but there are treatments available that can prolong a person's life.

Early diagnosis and treatment of HIV is critical to preventing the progression to AIDS.There are many ways to contract HIV, including through unprotected sex, sharing needles, or being born to an infected mother. People with HIV may not have any symptoms for years, but the virus is still present in their bodies and can be passed on to others. Symptoms of HIV can include fatigue, fever, weight loss, and diarrhoea.

Home Test Kits

Home test kits are products that allow you to test for the presence of certain illnesses while at home. Home test kits are generally easy to use and can be purchased at most drugstores.


A hormone is a chemical messenger that helps to regulate the function of cells and organs in the body. The endocrine system produces hormones that are released into the bloodstream and travel to target tissues, where they bind to specific receptors and trigger a response. Hormones play an important role in many physiological processes, including growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood.


Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a condition in which the force of your blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. Normal blood pressure is below 120 systolic and 80 diastolic. Hypertension is defined as 140/90 or higher.

There are two types of hypertension: primary and secondary. The exact cause of hypertension is often unknown, but it can be linked to a variety of factors, including obesity, stress, smoking, and genetics. Treatment usually involves lifestyle changes and medication. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary.



Immunisation is a medical procedure that helps protect individuals from contracting diseases. It works by injecting a “dead” or “modified” form of the virus, which then prompts the body to build immunity against the disease. Immunisations have been responsible for saving millions of lives and eradicating some diseases altogether.


Impotence, also called erectile dysfunction (ED), can be a total inability to achieve erection, an inconsistent ability to do so, or a tendency to sustain only brief erections. In some cases, the man is able to achieve an erection but cannot maintain it long enough for satisfactory sexual activity. In other cases, the man may achieve an adequate erection sometimes, but not every time he attempts intercourse.

There are many possible causes of ED, including both physical and psychological factors. Physical causes include atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), diabetes mellitus, certain prescription medications, and injury to the nerves or blood vessels supplying the penis. Psychological causes include anxiety, depression, stress, and relationships.


Infections can be caused by a wide variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Its severity depends on factors like the type of pathogen involved, the individual’s age and overall health status, and the presence or absence of underlying medical conditions. Treatment options vary depending on the type of infection, but may include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, or other medications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue. Prevention is the best defense against infection, and good hygiene practises, such as handwashing, are essential in minimising the spread of pathogens.


Inflammation is a key component of the body's immune response, and is crucial in helping protect the body from infection and disease. It occurs when there is an external irritant. It can be caused by diet, stress, smoking, and certain medications. Inflammation is also a common symptom of many conditions and diseases, such as arthritis, Crohn's disease, and psoriasis. However, when inflammation persists or occurs unnecessarily, it can contribute to a wide range of health problems.

There are two main types of inflammation: acute and chronic. Acute inflammation is the body's immediate response to an injury or infection, and is typically short-lived. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a long-term condition in which the body continues to experience low-level inflammation.


Inhalers are devices that deliver medication directly to the lungs. They are a highly effective way to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions affecting the airways. They can be used to relieve symptoms or prevent them from occurring in the first place.

Asthma inhalers come in two main types: metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). MDIs deliver a measured dose of medication in spray form. The medication is usually a corticosteroid, which helps to reduce inflammation in the airways. DPIs deliver the medication in dry powder form. The powder is inhaled directly into the lungs, where it works quickly.


Inhibition is a process that occurs when a substance interferes with or slows down a chemical reaction. In healthcare, inhibition is used to treat various conditions by reducing the activity of certain enzymes or other proteins. Inhibitors can be natural or synthetic, and they may work by binding to the active site of an enzyme or by altering its structure. In some cases, they may also bind to other proteins involved in a reaction, such as regulatory proteins. Inhibition is a major principle of drug action, and many drugs exert their effects by inhibiting the activity of enzymes or other proteins.


Injury is a general term that refers to harm or damage that occurs to the body. It can be caused by a variety of things, including accidents, falls, violence, and sports injuries. There are many types of injuries, ranging from minor scrapes and bruises to more serious ones like broken bones and concussions. In some cases, injuries can even be life-threatening.


Insomnia is a sleep disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, stay asleep, or both. And it can take a toll on your energy, mood, and overall health. There are two types of insomnia: primary and secondary. Primary insomnia is not caused by another health condition, which may be due to stress or changes in your environment or sleep habits. Secondary insomnia is caused by other health conditions (such as asthma, depression, arthritis), medications, or substance abuse.


Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy. It is made in the pancreas and released into the bloodstream when blood sugar levels rise. It then helps to move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells, where it can be used for energy. For diabetes patients, insulin injections are a common way to keep blood sugar levels under control. Doing this ensures their blood sugar stays at a healthy level, preventing serious health complications from occurring.

Internal Medicine

An internist is a medical doctor who specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the internal organs of the body. They are also trained in the management of chronic illnesses. Internists often serve as primary care physicians for adults. They may also serve as consultants to other physicians, such as specialists in cardiology or surgery.

Conditions commonly treated by internists include diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Internists may also treat infections, digestive disorders, and injuries. In addition, they may provide preventive care services, such as vaccinations and health screenings.


Iodine is an essential mineral that is required for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland produces hormones that are responsible for regulating metabolism, and iodine is necessary for the synthesis of these hormones. Iodine deficiency can lead to various health problems, including goitre, hypothyroidism, and mental retardation. Iodine is typically obtained through the diet, and foods that are rich in iodine include fish, seafood, dairy products, and eggs. Iodine supplements are also available, and these can be taken to prevent or treat iodine deficiency.


Iron is a mineral that is found in food and in the body. It is an important part of haemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood. Iron is also important for growth, development, and cell function. It can be used to treat iron deficiency anaemia and other conditions where iron levels are low. Iron supplements are available in many forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and injections.


Inventory refers to the stock of goods or materials held by a business. It is a crucial part of running a successful business, as it represents the merchandise that a company has available for sale. In healthcare, inventory refers to the drugs, devices, and other supplies stocked by a healthcare facility. An effective inventory management system is essential for ensuring that patients always have access to the medications they need, while also preventing waste and maximizing profits.



Jaundice is a yellow discolouration of the skin and whites of the eyes. It is caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a yellow pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down. Jaundice can be a symptom of several underlying conditions, including liver disease, pancreatic cancer, and certain blood disorders. Treatment for jaundice depends on the underlying cause. In most cases, it can be managed with medications or other therapies.


Jerk refers to a sudden, brief, and intense change in the body's response to a drug. This can either be an increase or decrease in the effects of the medication. It can also refer to an unpredictable or inexplicable change in how a medication works. In some cases, this may be due to changes in the person's body or health condition. It is important to be aware of these potential changes so that you can adjust your dose accordingly.



Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located in the back of the abdomen, just below the rib cage. They are responsible for filtering out waste and toxins from the blood. They also help regulate blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and red blood cell production.Kidney disease is a serious condition that can lead to kidney failure. Early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent the progression of kidney disease. Kidney diseases range from acute (short-term) to chronic (long-term) conditions. Treatment for kidney disease often includes lifestyle changes, medication, and sometimes dialysis or transplants.



Lubricants are substances that reduce friction between two surfaces. In sexual health, lubricants are used to reduce friction between body parts during sexual activity, which can help prevent pain and discomfort. Lubricants can be applied to the penis, vagina, anus, or any other body part that may come into contact with another during sex. Lubricants can be purchased over-the-counter or online. There are different lubricants; water-based lubricants, silicone-based lubricants, and others.


Medical Genetics

Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that deals with diagnosing and managing genetic disorders. Doctors who specialise in this field are called medical geneticists. They work closely with other healthcare providers, such as family doctors, paediatricians, obstetricians, and counsellors, to provide comprehensive care for patients with genetic disorders.

Medical geneticists use a variety of techniques to diagnose genetic disorders, including DNA testing, chromosome analysis, and prenatal diagnosis. They also provide counselling and support to patients and families affected by genetic disorders.


Medication can be used to treat a wide variety of conditions, from pain relief to managing chronic illnesses. They can also be used to prevent health problems from occurring in the first place.

There are different types of medications available, and each has its own set of benefits and risks. Some common side effects of medications include upset stomach, headache, and fatigue. More serious side effects are also possible, and it is important to report any unusual symptoms to a healthcare provider right away.

Medication Exchange

Medication exchange is the process of exchanging one medication for another. This can be done for a variety of reasons, including changing medications due to side effects or intolerances, or simply because a different medication may be more effective for the patient's condition. In many cases, medication exchange is a collaborative effort between the patient and their healthcare team, with the ultimate goal of finding the best possible treatment option.

Medication Sourcing

Medication sourcing is the process of identifying and procuring medications from suppliers. This can be done either directly through the manufacturer or through a third-party supplier. The goal of medication sourcing is to ensure that patients have access to the medications they need at a fair price.


Menopause is a natural process that every woman experiences as she ages. It marks the end of a woman's reproductive years, and is typically diagnosed when a woman has gone 12 months without a menstrual period. During menopause, oestrogen levels dip and eventually fall to very low levels. This can cause symptoms like hot flashes, night sweats, sleep problems, mood changes, vaginal dryness, and decreased sex drive.

There are three stages of menopause: perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause. Perimenopause is the stage before menopause when a woman's body is gradually transitioning into menopause. Menopause is the point when a woman has gone 12 months without a period and is no longer able to get pregnant. Postmenopause is the stage after menopause when a woman's hormone levels have stabilised.

Menstrual Care

Menstrual care refers to the hygienic practises that women follow during their menstrual cycle. It involves keeping the genital area clean and free from infection, using products that absorb menstrual flow, and changing these products regularly. Menstrual care also includes choosing the right type of menstrual product for your needs, and knowing how to use it properly.

Men's Health

The term "men's health" is often used interchangeably with "male health." Men's health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, as experienced by men, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. There are several men's health concerns that are unique to men, including prostate cancer and testicular cancer.

Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is a regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible. The cycle is required for the production of oocytes and the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. Menstrual cycles may be irregular, especially in the first years after puberty and during perimenopause.


Menstruation, also known as a period, is the process by which the uterus sheds its lining. The shedding of the uterine lining is caused by hormonal changes in the body. The average length of a menstrual cycle is 28 days. However, it is normal for cycles to range from 21 to 45 days. The first day of bleeding is counted as day one of the cycle. Bleeding usually lasts for 3 to 7 days.During each menstrual cycle, an egg is released from one of the ovaries and travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus. If the egg is not fertilised by sperm, it will break down and be shed along with the lining of the uterus. This shedding of the uterine lining is called menstruation.

Mental Health

Mental health is an important part of overall health and well-being. Mental health includes your emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how you think, feel, and act. It also helps determine how you handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Good mental health isn't just the absence of mental illness.


Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells to maintain life. These reactions convert small molecules into larger ones, or break them down into smaller ones, using energy from Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), an energy-carrying molecule in cells. Metabolism also refers to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism, including those involved in maintenance, growth, and reproduction.

Mild Painkillers

"Mild painkillers" is a general term used to describe any medication that is used to relieve moderate pain. This includes over-the-counter (OTC) medications like ibuprofen and acetaminophen, as well as prescription medications like tramadol. These drugs work by reducing inflammation or blocking pain signals from the brain.

Mother & Baby Medications

Mother & baby medications refer to any medication that is taken by a mother who is breastfeeding. These medications can be in the form of pills, liquids, creams, or injections. Some include; antibiotics, pain relievers, cold and allergy medications, and even some herbal supplements. It is important to know that not all medications are safe to take while breastfeeding, and some may even pass through breast milk and into the baby's system. Always check with a healthcare professional before taking any medication while breastfeeding.


Multivitamins are supplements that contain a variety of vitamins and minerals. They are typically taken to improve overall health or to compensate for a diet lacking in these nutrients. Multivitamins are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids. They help fill nutrient gaps in your diet. Learn more


Myth refers to a widely-held but false belief. In medicine, myths can take the form of beliefs about the cause of disease, the best way to prevent or treat it, or exaggerated claims about a particular medical treatment or procedure.Myths range from harmless misconceptions to dangerous misinformation. It's important to be sceptical of claims made about medical treatments and procedures, and to consult with a healthcare professional before making any decisions about your health.



Nausea is an unpleasant feeling in the stomach that may be accompanied by vomiting. It is a common side effect of many medications, including some over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. It can also be caused by food poisoning or motion sickness. Medications such as anti-nausea drugs can help relieve symptoms. Home remedies, such as drinking ginger tea or lying down with a cold compress on your forehead, may also help. In most cases, nausea is not a serious condition and will go away on its own. However, if you experience severe or persistent nausea, you should see your doctor to rule out any underlying medical conditions.


Nebulizers are devices which work by using compressed air to convert liquid medication into a fine mist, which can then be inhaled. The mist is then inhaled through the mouthpiece or mask. They are often used by people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Nebulizers can be used with a variety of different medications, including bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics.

Needles and pins

"Needles and pins" is a phrase often used to describe the sensation of pain or discomfort caused by needles or other sharp objects. It can also be used to describe the feeling of anxiety or unease that may accompany getting a needle stuck in one's skin. It is generally considered a negative sensation, though you may find it mildly uncomfortable or even pleasurable.


Nerves are the electrical impulses that send messages between your brain and your body. They allow you to feel sensations like touch, pain, and temperature. They also control your muscles so you can move.

Medications that affect nerves are called neuroactive drugs. They can be used to treat conditions like pain, seizures, and anxiety. Some of these drugs work by blocking the transmission of nerve signals. Others work by mimicking the actions of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers that carry signals between nerves.


A neurologist is a medical practitioner who specialises in diagnosing and treating disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

Some common conditions that neurologists treat are Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and headache. Treatment may involve medication, surgery, or other therapies.

Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine that uses radioactive isotopes to diagnose and treat various diseases. Nuclear medicine specialists are trained to administer these isotopes and to interpret the resulting images.

Nuclear medicine can be used to detect a variety of conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. It may also be used to treat certain medical conditions, such as thyroid cancer.



Obesity is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as “excess body fat that can lead to health problems." It is a complex condition that requires long-term treatment. There is no single cause of obesity, and it often occurs as a result of a combination of factors. While some people are more prone to obesity than others, due to genetics or other conditions, anyone can develop obesity if they eat more calories than they burn. Obesity often leads to other health problems, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Obstetrics and Gynaecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the care of pregnant women, their unborn child and the management of gynaecological problems. An obstetrician-gynaecologist (ob-gyn) is a physician who has completed training in both obstetrics and gynaecology.

An ob-gyn provides comprehensive care to women throughout their reproductive years, from adolescence through menopause. In addition to managing pregnancy and delivery, an ob-gyn can also provide general healthcare for women, including Pap smears and pelvic exams, breast exams, family planning counselling, menopause management and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.


Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition marked by persistent, unwanted thoughts and repetitive behaviours. People with OCD may have difficulty tolerating uncertainty or discomfort and may feel the need to control their environment. This can lead to compulsions, or repetitive behaviours, such as washing hands, checking locks, or counting objects. OCD can cause significant distress and interference with daily life. However, effective treatments can help you manage the symptoms.


Ophthalmology is the field of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders. Ophthalmologists are physicians who specialise in the medical and surgical care of the eyes and visual system.

Common eye disorders that ophthalmologists treat include refractive errors (such as near sightedness, far sightedness, and astigmatism), cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. Ophthalmologists also provide routine eye exams and vision screenings.


Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are drugs that can be sold without a prescription. They are generally safe and effective when used as directed on the label. However, some OTC medications can have serious side effects if not used correctly.



Pads are absorbent materials that are worn by women during their menstrual period to absorb the blood flow. They are also sometimes called sanitary napkins. Menstrual pads can be made of different materials, including cotton, disposable paper products, or even silicone. There are two main types of menstrual pads: disposable and reusable. Disposable pads are made to be thrown away after each use, while reusable pads can be washed and reused multiple times.


A paediatrician is a medical doctor who specialises in the care of infants, children and adolescents. Paediatricians can be generalists, providing comprehensive care for all aspects of child health, or they may subspecialise in specific areas such as neonatology (care of newborns), cardiology (heart health), oncology (cancer care) or infectious diseases.

Paediatricians are trained to recognise and treat a wide range of childhood illnesses, from minor health concerns to serious medical conditions. They also provide preventive care, including immunisations and health screening tests, to help keep children healthy and identify any problems early. Additionally, paediatricians can offer guidance on issues such as nutrition, exercise and development.

Pain Management

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the relief of pain. It can be either acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term). A variety of conditions can cause pain, including injury, surgery, cancer, and other illnesses. Pain management may involve medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.


Pancreas refer to a dual-function gland that does both digestive and endocrine functions. It secretes enzymes that help break down food in the small intestine, as well as hormones like insulin that regulate blood sugar levels. The exocrine function of the pancreas is to secrete enzymes that help with digestion. These enzymes are secreted into the small intestine where they break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The endocrine function of the pancreas is to produce hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels. Pancreatic hormones are essential for regulating metabolism and maintaining normal blood sugar levels.


Paralysis is a condition characterised by the inability to move one or more muscles. It can be caused by damage to the nervous system, such as that which occurs in a stroke, or it can be the result of an injury to the spinal cord. There are different types of paralysis, and its severity can vary from person to person. In some cases, paralysis may only affect a small area of the body, such as one hand or one foot. In other cases, it may cause complete loss of movement and sensation in all four limbs.


Patients are people seeking medical care. They may be in need of treatment for a specific condition or disease, or they may simply be seeking preventative care or advice. In either case, patients play a vital role in the medical field. Without them, doctors and other medical professionals would have no one to treat.


Pathologists are medical doctors who specialise in diagnosing and studying diseases. They play a vital role in the healthcare system, as they are often responsible for providing the information that helps other doctors treat their patients effectively.

Pathologists use a variety of techniques to examine tissues and organs from patients. They may use microscopes to examine cells, or they may order tests that help them identify the presence of specific diseases. In some cases, pathologists may even perform surgery to remove diseased tissue so that it can be studied more closely.

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) are a group of infection-related disorders that affect female reproductive organs. The most common cause of PID is bacteria from sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea. It can also be caused by other types of bacteria, resulting from non-STI related infections. Symptoms of PID include pelvic pain, fever, abnormal vaginal discharge, and painful urination.

If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pain. Treatment for PID typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, hospitalisation may be necessary. However, women who have had PID are at increased risk for developing it again in the future.


A pharmacist is a healthcare professional who is trained and licensed to dispense medications. They are responsible for providing information about the safe and effective use of those medications. They also play a key role in monitoring patients' drug therapy and identifying potential problems. Pharmacists typically work in pharmacies, but they may also work in hospitals, clinics, or other healthcare settings.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

A physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist is a healthcare professional who specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with physical impairments or disabilities. These specialists use a variety of techniques, including exercise, medication, and assistive devices, to help their patients improve their function and quality of life.

Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists work with patients of all ages, from infants to the elderly. They often collaborate with other healthcare professionals, such as occupational therapists and speech-language pathologists, to provide comprehensive care.


Physicians are health care professionals who diagnose and treat patients. They use a variety of medical tools and techniques to examine patients, order and interpret diagnostic tests, and prescribe medications. They may also conduct or participate in clinical trials to test new treatments or therapies. Physicians also contribute to the development of new medical technologies.


A pill is a medicine that is taken by mouth in the form of a capsule or tablet. It is one of the most common methods of administration of medication. Pill medications are usually designed to be taken orally, but some can be crushed and snorted, or dissolved and injected.They are generally made up of an active ingredient (the drug itself) and inactive ingredients (binders, fillers, etc.). The active ingredient is what gives the pill its therapeutic effect. The inactive ingredients help to hold the pill together and may provide other benefits, such as making it easier to swallow.


Pregnancy is the process of carrying a developing embryo or foetus inside a woman's womb. In human gestation, pregnancy lasts approximately nine months, measured from the time of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP). During early pregnancy, the embryo and later foetus develops inside the fallopian tube before implanting into the uterine wall around week six. Some common symptoms during early pregnancy include nausea and vomiting (often called "morning sickness"), fatigue, frequent urination, and breast tenderness. These symptoms are usually at their worst during the first trimester and tend to improve during the second and third trimesters.


A prescription is a medical order for the preparation and administration of a medication. It is usually written by a doctor or other healthcare provider. The medication may be an oral drug, a topical cream or ointment, or an injectable. The prescription will include directions on how to take the medication, as well as any special instructions. A prescription must be filled by a licensed pharmacy. The pharmacist will review the prescription and make sure that it is safe for the patient to take. They may also provide counselling on how to take the medication and what to expect.

Preventive Medicine

Preventive medicine specialists are medical doctors who focus on preventing disease and promoting health. They work with individuals, families, and communities to prevent illness and injury and to improve the health of all people. They make use of different strategies to achieve their goals, including education, research, and policymaking.

Preventive medicine specialists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, public health departments, and private practices. They may also work in research laboratories or teach at colleges and universities.

Primary Care Provider

Primary care providers (PCPs) are medical professionals who provide comprehensive and continuing healthcare for patients. They serve as the first point of contact for patients seeking medical care, and are responsible for diagnosing and treating conditions, as well as providing preventive care. PCPs may be family physicians, internists, paediatricians, or nurse practitioners.


Probiotics are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria that are already present in our bodies. They can be found in fermented foods or supplements, and they are often called "good" or "helpful" bacteria because they help keep our gut healthy. Probiotics are believed to have several health benefits, including promoting a healthy digestive system, reducing the risk of certain infections, and improving immune function.


As regards healthcare, providers can be broadly classified into two categories: those who dispense medication and those who prescribe medication. Dispensing providers include pharmacists, while prescribing providers include physicians and nurse practitioners. Both types of providers play an important role in ensuring that patients receive the best possible care.


A psychiatry specialist is a medical doctor who specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of mental health conditions. Psychiatrists are trained to understand the biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to mental health conditions. They use this knowledge to develop individualised treatment plans for their patients.

Psychiatrists often work closely with other mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, and counsellors. This team approach ensures that patients receive comprehensive care that addresses all aspects of their condition.


Pulmonary is a medical term that refers to the lungs, which are a vital organ in the body responsible for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Pulmonary diseases affect the lungs and can cause difficulty breathing, lung cancer, and other respiratory problems. Treatment for pulmonary diseases varies depending on the severity of the condition, but may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.


Pulse is the rhythmical expansion and contraction of an artery that results from the wave of blood pushed forward by each heartbeat. The pulse can be palpated (felt) in various places on the body, such as at the neck (carotid artery), at the wrist (radial artery), behind the knee (popliteal artery), or on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery).The pulse rate is usually measured to assess a person's heart rate, which is the number of times the heart beats per minute. A normal resting heart rate is 60-100 beats per minute. However, many factors can affect heart rate, including exercise, stress, medications, and underlying medical conditions.


Quality Assurance

Quality assurance is a process that helps to ensure the accuracy and quality of data. Its goal is to prevent errors and improve the quality of data. This is done by using various methods to check data for accuracy and completeness, which can include inspections, audits, and testing.


"Quarantine" is a term used in medicine to describe the process of separating and isolating people or animals who have been exposed to a contagious disease. This is done in order to prevent the spread of the disease to others. It can last for a few hours or up to several weeks, depending on the disease. During this time, people in quarantine may be asked to stay at home, away from work or school, and avoid contact with other people. They may also be asked to wear a mask and practice good hygiene, such as washing their hands often.


Radiation Oncology

Radiation oncology is the branch of medicine that uses high-energy radiation to treat cancer. Radiation oncologists can treat cancer with external beam radiation therapy, which uses a machine to direct radiation at the cancerous area, or with internal radiation therapy, in which radioactive material is placed inside the body near the cancerous tissue.

Radiation oncologists work with a team of other healthcare professionals, including medical physicists and dosimetrists, to ensure that each patient receives the most effective treatment possible. They also work closely with patients to develop a treatment plan that meets their specific needs and goals.

Red Blood Cell

Red blood cells are the most common type of cell in the human body. They are responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues in the body. They are produced in the bone marrow, and circulated in the bloodstream for about 120 days before they are removed from the circulation and replaced with new red blood cells.


Reflux refers to the backflow of stomach contents into the oesophagus. This can happen when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) muscle relaxes more often than it should or does not close properly. When this happens, acid and other stomach contents can rise up into the oesophagus, which can lead to heartburn, indigestion, and other symptoms.


A regimen is a plan or set of instructions for treating a disease or achieving a desired medical goal. A treatment regimen may be as simple as taking a daily medication, or it may be a complex plan that includes multiple medications, lifestyle changes, and other therapies.

Remote Monitoring

Remote monitoring, also known as telemonitoring or home monitoring, is the use of technology to remotely collect medical data from patients. This data can be used to track and manage a patient's health condition, as well as to provide remote support and care.


Reproduction refers to the process by which living organisms produce new individuals of their species. Human reproduction is a complex process that involves multiple organs and systems. The reproductive system includes gonads (sex glands), which produce the gametes (sex cells), as well as the accessory organs and structures, such as the uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina, that are necessary for sexual intercourse and pregnancy.

Human reproduction occurs via sexual intercourse between a male and female. During which the male's penis enters the female's vagina. This allows the male's sperm to come into contact with the female's eggs. If fertilization occurs, a new individual begins to develop.


Resistance is a term used to describe the ability of a microorganism or other biological entity to withstand the effects of a drug or other treatment. It can also refer to the ability of a cancer cell to resist the effects of chemotherapy. When resistance occurs, it means that the original course of treatment is no longer effective and an alternative must be found.

Resistance can develop spontaneously, or it may be acquired through exposure to another organism that is resistant to the same drug. For example, if a person with tuberculosis is treated with a particular antibiotic but does not finish the full course of treatment, the bacteria that remain can mutate and become resistant to that antibiotic.


Respiratory refers to the process of breathing, which includes both the act of inhaling and exhaling, as well as the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the bloodstream. The respiratory system is responsible for taking in fresh oxygen and getting rid of waste gases like carbon dioxide. It is made up of the lungs, airways, and muscles of respiration. Problems with breathing can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and lung cancer. Treatment for respiratory problems depends on the underlying cause but may include medication, lifestyle changes, or surgery.


Sanitary Wipes

Sanitary wipes are cleansing cloths that are used to cleanse the skin or other surfaces. Sanitary means clean and free from dirt, impurities, or contaminants. These wipes are usually made of paper or fabric, and they can be moistened with water, alcohol, or other solutions. Sanitary wipes are used for a variety of purposes, including personal hygiene, cleaning surfaces, and preventing the spread of germs.


A scan is a picture of the inside of your body. It's often used to check for a condition or to see how well a treatment is working. Scans can be in black and white, or they can be in colour. They can be X-rays, computerised tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and ultrasound scans. X-rays are the most common type of medical scan. They use low doses of radiation to take pictures of the inside of your body. X-rays are often used to check for broken bones or problems with your lungs.


A sedative is a medication that calms or induces sleep. It can be used to relieve anxiety, nervousness, and tension. Sedatives may also be used to treat seizures and other medical conditions. Some sedatives can be addictive and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.


A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. It can cause a change in behaviour, senses, or consciousness. A seizure can also cause you to lose muscle control, making it difficult to move or speak. It is generally caused by abnormal activity in the brain, which may be the result of a medical condition or injury. Its severity can vary from mild to severe. In some cases, seizures may be life-threatening.

There are two main types of seizures: generalised and partial. Generalised seizures affect the entire brain. Partial seizures only affect one area of the brain. Partial seizures can either be simple or complex. Simple partial seizures don't usually cause you to lose consciousness. Complex partial seizures can cause you to lose consciousness or have a change in your level of consciousness.


Sensation is often used to refer to the ability to feel touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, and vibration. It basically refers to the perception of stimuli by the senses. Sensation can be affected by a variety of factors, including disease, injury, or medications.


Senses refer to the body's ability to detect and process external stimuli. This can include anything from sight and sound to touch and smell. They play a vital role in our overall health and well-being, as they help us to interact with our environment and make informed decisions about our health.

There are five main senses that we use to interact with the world around us: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Each of these senses is important in its own way and helps us to understand our surroundings. For instance, sight allows us to see danger coming before it happens, while hearing gives us warning sounds that help us avoid dangerous situations. Touch helps us to feel textures and identify objects, while smell and taste help us to identify foods that are safe to eat.

Sexual Health/Care

"Sexual health/care" is a term that refers to the overall well-being of an individual's sexual life. It includes physical, mental, and emotional aspects. Physical sexual health encompasses things like maintaining a healthy body weight, getting regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, and refraining from substance abuse. Mental and emotional sexual care entails having a positive attitude towards sex, good communication skills, and a healthy relationship with one's partner.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, and viruses. They can be passed through any form of sexual activity, including oral, vaginal, and anal sex.STDs are often used interchangeably with STIs, but they are different. STDs are STIs that have progressed to cause symptoms or other problems. Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis are examples of STDs. HIV, HPV, and HSV are examples of STIs.

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexually transmitted infection (STI) is used to describe a range of infections that can be passed on through sexual contact. STIs can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, and can be passed on through any form of sexual activity - including vaginal, anal, and oral sex.There are a wide variety of STIs, and they can vary in their symptoms and severity. Some STIs, such as chlamydia or gonorrhoea, may cause no symptoms at all; while others, like HIV or herpes, can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.


Shock is a life-threatening condition that happens when the body is not getting enough blood flow. It can be caused by a number of different things, including heart attack, bleeding, an allergic reaction, or severe infection. Shock can also occur after a major trauma like a car accident.

Sickle Cell

Sickle cell is used to describe a number of different blood disorders that are caused by abnormal haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. In people with sickle cell disease, the haemoglobin is abnormal and causes the red blood cells to change shape and become crescent-shaped. These misshapen cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can block the flow of blood and oxygen to tissues and organs. This can cause severe pain, organ damage, and other serious complications. There is no cure for sickle cell disease, but treatments are available to help manage the symptoms.


Smoke is a type of aerosolable material that is made up of ash, soot, and other particulates. It is released when something is burned, such as tobacco products, wood, or coal. It can also be a by-product of vehicle exhaust or industrial emissions. Smoke inhalation is the leading cause of death in fires. It can also cause respiratory problems, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Short-term exposure to smoke can irritate the eyes, nose, and throat. Long-term exposure can lead to more serious health problems, such as heart disease and cancer.


Smoking is a term that refers to the inhalation of tobacco smoke. It can also refer to the use of other substances, such as marijuana, in cigarettes or pipes. Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide, and it is a major risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, and lung disease. Quitting smoking can greatly reduce your risk of developing these diseases.


Spermicide is a contraceptive agent that is applied topically to the vagina or anus to immobilise and kill sperm. Spermicide can be used alone or in combination with other forms of birth control, such as condoms, diaphragms, or intrauterine devices (IUDs).There are several types of spermicide available over-the-counter, including creams, foams, gels, films, and suppositories. Most spermicide products contain nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a chemical that kills sperm on contact. Spermicide is affordable and easy to use, but it is not as effective at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of contraception. When used alone, spermicide has a failure rate of about 28 percent.


Sterilisation is a process of removing all living organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and spores, from an object or surface. It is often used in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of infection. There are several methods of sterilisation, including boiling, autoclaving, ultraviolet light and gas sterilisation. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are several factors to consider when choosing a sterilisation method, including the type of microorganism you need to kill, the level of sterility required and the amount of time you have available.


Steroids are a class of drugs that are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. They work by mimicking the effects of the hormones your body naturally produces. Steroids can be taken orally, injected, or applied topically. However, long-term use of steroids can lead to serious health problems such as heart disease, liver disease, and bone loss.


Stress is a medical term used to describe the body's response to any demand. It can be caused by both physical and emotional factors. The body's response to stress is designed to protect us from harm, but if it becomes chronic, it can lead to serious health problems. The symptoms of stress vary from person to person, but they can include feeling anxious, irritable, or overwhelmed; difficulty sleeping; changes in appetite; and physical symptoms such as headaches or stomachache.

There are two types of stress: acute stress and chronic stress. Acute stress is the body's normal reaction to an immediate threat or challenge, such as an upcoming exam or a job interview. It is intended to be temporary and usually goes away once the threat or challenge has passed. Chronic stress, on the other hand, occurs when we're constantly exposed to stressful situations over a long period of time, such as caring for a sick relative or working in a high-pressure job. This type of stress can have serious negative effects on our health.


A stroke occurs when the blood supply to your brain is interrupted or reduced. This can happen if a blood vessel in your brain bursts or is blocked by a clot. When this happens, your brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, and it starts to die. A stroke is a medical emergency, and prompt treatment is essential. Symptoms include sudden onset of weakness or numbness on one side of your body, sudden confusion or trouble speaking, sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes, sudden trouble walking, dizziness or loss of balance or coordination.

There are two main types of stroke: haemorrhagic and ischaemic. Haemorrhagic strokes occur when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or leaks. Ischaemic strokes occur when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel or artery supplying blood to the brain.


The word "supplements" is often used to describe various nutrient-dense foods or substances that can be added to the diet in order to improve overall health and well-being. Supplements are available in several forms, including pills, powders, and liquids, and can be made from natural or synthetic sources. While some supplements are designed to provide essential nutrients that may be lacking in the diet, others are intended to boost specific areas of health.


Surgery is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of conditions requiring surgical intervention. It can be divided into two broad categories: invasive surgery, which involves making incisions in the body to access the affected area; and non-invasive surgery, which uses less invasive techniques such as endoscopy or laser surgery.

Surgery can be performed for a number of reasons, including to repair damage caused by injury or disease, to remove diseased tissue, to correct a deformity, or to improve function. Surgery is often considered a last resort when other less invasive treatments have failed.

Some common surgical procedures include appendectomy (removal of the appendix), cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder), hernia repair, and hysterectomy (removal of the uterus). Anaesthesiologists and nurse anaesthetists may also be involved in surgery to provide pain relief and monitor the patient's vital signs.


In healthcare, a symptom is a sign of disease, illness, injury, or any other health condition. Symptoms can be mild or severe, temporary or long-lasting. They are often vague and may be difficult to describe.Symptoms may also vary depending on the individual and the type of health condition. For example, someone with cancer may experience different symptoms than someone with a cold or flu.While symptoms are usually indicative of an underlying health problem, they are not always reliable indicators of the specific condition. That’s because many conditions share common symptoms.


Syndrome is a group of medical signs and symptoms that are characteristic of a particular disease or condition. It may be caused by a single underlying disorder, but it more often reflects the effects of multiple factors. For instance, Down syndrome is caused by an error in chromosome replication, while post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is likely caused by a combination of genetic vulnerability and exposure to an extremely stressful event. Given the complex nature of many syndromes, it's not surprising that they can be difficult to diagnose. A thorough medical history and physical examination are usually the first step in making a diagnosis.


Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Symptoms of syphilis vary depending on the stage of infection, but can include a rash, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and sores on the genitals or mouth. Syphilis is diagnosed through a blood test or by examining the sores.Syphilis is treated with antibiotics, typically penicillin. If left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious health problems including neurological problems, blindness, and even death. Syphilis is preventable through safe sex practices and early treatment.



Tampons are small, plug-like devices made of absorbent material that are inserted into the vagina to absorb menstrual blood. They are mostly made of rayon, a type of fabric, with a small amount of cotton or other natural fibres added for absorbency. The muscles of the vagina hold tampons in place and have a string attached to them so they can be easily removed. Tampons must be changed every four to eight hours to prevent them from becoming saturated and causing leaks or discomfort.

Tea Bags

This term is used to describe the leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Tea leaves are picked, rolled, and then dried. Tea bags are made from a variety of materials, including paper, cotton, muslin, and silk. They usually contain about 2-3 grams of tea leaves.


A teaspoon is a unit of measurement of volume. It is commonly used in cooking recipes and serving sizes. It is also often used in medicine as a way to measure dosage. Teaspoons are typically made of metal, plastic, or glass.One teaspoon is equal to five milliliters (mL). This is equivalent to one-third of a tablespoon.


A test is usually a procedure or method used to examine a patient's body or bodily fluids for evidence of disease. Depending on the type of test, it can be used to diagnose, monitor, or screen for a variety of conditions. Common tests include blood tests, urine tests, X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.


Testosterone is a hormone that is produced primarily in the testicles. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as a deep voice and facial hair. Testosterone also plays a role in fertility, bone health, and red blood cell production.

The levels of testosterone in the body vary throughout life. In puberty, testosterone levels rise sharply, which leads to the physical changes associated with this time of life. After puberty, testosterone levels start to decline slowly and continue to do so as men age. Low testosterone levels can cause problems such as low libido (sex drive), infertility, and osteoporosis (weak bones).


The term "therapeutic" refers to the treatment of a disease or condition. Therapeutic treatments can be divided into two broad categories: curative and palliative.Curative therapies are designed to eliminate disease or condition. Most times, curative therapies can lead to a complete recovery. Palliative therapies, on the other hand, are designed to relieve symptoms without necessarily curing the underlying disease or condition.


Therapy, in medicine, is the treatment of a disease or condition with drugs, surgery, or other medical devices. It is often used in combination with other treatments, such as lifestyle changes or counselling.  The goal of therapy is to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life of the patient. In some cases, therapy can cure a disease or condition. In other cases, it can only control or manage its symptoms.


Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential nutrient that plays a role in many of the body's key functions. This includes energy production, metabolism, nerve function, and heart health. Thiamine is found in a variety of foods, but it is especially high in pork, whole grains, and fortified foods. A thiamine deficiency can lead to serious health problems, so it is important to make sure you are getting enough of this important nutrient.


Thymine is an essential nucleobase in the DNA and is required for the normal function of DNA. Without thymine, DNA replication and repair would not be possible. Thymine is also important for the proper development and function of cells. It can be used to treat cancer by interfering with the growth of cancer cells. By preventing cancer cells from getting the thymine they need, cancer growth can be slowed or stopped.


The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that is located in the front of the neck, just below Adam's apple. It has two lobes, or sections, on either side of the windpipe (trachea). The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, which is the process by which the body converts food into energy. The thyroid gland also regulates growth and development.


Tiredness is a common symptom that can be caused by several things. In medicine, it is usually described as fatigue. Fatigue differs from simply feeling tired after a long day or week. Fatigue is a constant state of tiredness that is not relieved by rest and can negatively affect your quality of life. It is important to see a doctor if you are feeling tired all the time, as it could be a sign of an underlying medical condition.


Tobacco is a plant that contains nicotine, a substance that can be addictive and harmful. Nicotine is a stimulant that can have short-term effects, such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. Long-term exposure to nicotine can lead to addiction and other serious health problems.Tobacco is often used in cigarettes, cigars, and other tobacco products. Smoking is not the only way to consume tobacco products. They can also be chewed or snuffed. In fact, nicotine levels in smokeless tobacco products are often higher than in cigarettes.


A tranquillizer is a medication that is used to relieve anxiety or agitation. They work by affecting the central nervous system (CNS). They act on the brain and spinal cord to produce their effects. Tranquillizers can be divided into two main types: sedatives and hypnotics. Sedatives are drugs that slow down the CNS, while hypnotics are drugs that produce sleep.They can either be prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Prescription tranquillizers are typically used to treat more severe forms of anxiety, such as panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. OTC tranquillizers are generally used for milder forms of anxiety, such as stress or nervousness.


Trauma is a term used to describe a wide range of reactions that occur as a result of an individual being exposed to a stressful or traumatic event. These events can include natural disasters, car accidents, physical or sexual assault, or any other experience that leaves an individual feeling overwhelmed and unable to cope. While everyone responds to trauma differently, there are some common symptoms that many people experience. These can include feelings of fear, anxiety, and isolation; difficulty sleeping; changes in appetite; irritability and anger; and flashbacks or intrusive thoughts about the event.


Treatment refers to the management and care of a patient to combat disease or ailment. It often includes the use of medication, surgery, and lifestyle changes. The purpose of treatment is to cure the patient or ease symptoms.  Some treatments focus on symptom relief, while others aim to cure the underlying condition. In some cases, a combination of different treatments may be necessary to achieve the desired results. The type of treatment that is right for a particular patient sometimes depends on factors like the severity of their condition, their overall health, and their personal preferences.



An ulcer is a sore on the skin or mucous membrane that results from the breakdown of tissue. Ulcers are most commonly found on the legs or in the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcers can be painful and may take weeks or months to heal. Some ulcers may lead to serious complications, such as infection or gangrene. It can be caused by factors like trauma to the skin or mucous membrane, prolonged exposure to irritants (such as stomach acid or digestive enzymes), infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi, etc.


Ultrasound is a medical imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the inside of the body. It is used to visualise organs and structures, such as the heart, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ovaries. It can also be used to assess blood flow and tissue elasticity, and to guide procedures such as biopsies and needle injections.Ultrasound is a painless, non-invasive procedure that does not use ionizing radiation (such as x-rays). This makes it a very safe imaging modality, particularly for pregnant women and children. Ultrasound images are produced by transmitting sound waves through the body and then detecting the reflections of these waves off of tissues and organs. The reflection patterns are used to create a two-dimensional image of the body structure.

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common condition that can affect anyone. It occurs when bacteria enter the urinary system and multiply, causing an infection. The most common symptom of a UTI is a strong, persistent urge to urinate. Other symptoms may include pain or burning during urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and pelvic pain in women. Treatment usually involves antibiotics. If left untreated, a UTI can cause serious health complications.


Urology is the branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system and reproductive organs. The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The male reproductive organs include testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and penis. While female reproductive organs include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and vulva.

Urologists are trained in both surgical and medical aspects of their speciality. They treat conditions such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, bladder problems, prostate problems, and erectile dysfunction. Urologists also perform surgery on the urinary system and male reproductive organs.

Commonly performed surgeries by urologists include: circumcision, vasectomy, orchiectomy, penile implants, prostatectomy, and ureteroscopy.


The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's pelvis. This organ allows a woman to carry a baby during pregnancy. The lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, provides nutrients and shelter for the developing embryo. The muscular walls of the uterus help to push the baby out during labour and delivery.



Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the body develop immunity to a disease. Vaccines contain a weakened or killed form of the virus, bacteria, or other organism that causes disease. When this enters the body, it triggers an immune response. The body then produces antibodies to fight off the infection.Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent disease. It protects not only the person being vaccinated, but also helps to prevent the spread of disease by protecting those who are unable to be vaccinated, such as infants and people with certain medical conditions.


A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or dead forms of the microbe or its toxins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognise it as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognise and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines can be prophylactic (preventive), or therapeutic (treating an already infected patient).The most common method of vaccine delivery is via injection into muscle tissue or subcutaneous fat. Other modes of delivery include oral vaccines, which are either swallowed or taken nasally, and intradermal, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection.

Vagina Yeast infection

Vagina yeast infection is a medical condition that can be caused by different fungus types, the most common being Candida albicans. While this particular fungus is normally found in small quantities in the vagina, it can overgrow and cause symptoms like intense itching, burning, and redness. In some cases, the infection can also lead to a discharge resembling cottage cheese.

Venereal Diseases

Venereal diseases are infections that are transmitted through sexual contact. They can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. The most common venereal diseases are chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis. There are many ways to prevent the spread of venereal diseases, such as using protection. However, the best way is to abstain from sexual contact. You should also get tested regularly for STDs and avoid having sex with partners who have STDs.


A virus refers to a group of harmful microorganisms that can cause infections in humans and other animals. They are typically tiny, infectious particles that can reproduce inside the cells of their hosts.Viruses are often classified according to the type of host they infect: human viruses, animal viruses, plant viruses, or bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria). Some viruses cause diseases in humans, such as influenza, West Nile virus, and Ebola virus. Other viruses do not cause disease but can be used to genetically modify organisms for research or biotechnology purposes.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. The body needs Vitamin C for the development and maintenance of bones, teeth, and soft tissue. Vitamin C is also important for wound healing, and it helps the body absorb iron. It can be found in many foods, including citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, and green vegetables. Vitamin C is also available in supplement form.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is also produced endogenously when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, is biologically inert and must undergo two hydroxylations in the body for activation.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight naturally occurring fat-soluble vitamins that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Its deficiency is rare, but it can cause problems with nerve and muscle function. Vitamin E is an antioxidant, which means it helps protect cells from damage. It is found in many foods, including vegetable oils, nuts, and green leafy vegetables.



A wart is a small, hard growth that appears on the skin. They are caused by viruses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) family. There are more than 100 different types of HPV, and each type can cause warts on different parts of the body.Warts are very contagious and can be spread by direct contact with an infected person or by touching something that has been contaminated with the virus, such as a towel or surface. They can also be spread through sexual contact.

Weight Gain

Weight gain can refer to an increase in body weight, muscle mass, or fat deposits. It can happen due to a variety of factors, including overeating, pregnancy, stress, and certain medical conditions. Weight gain can be intentional or unintentional. Intentional weight gain is often done in order to improve athletic performance or to meet the desired body type. Unintentional weight gain can be a side effect of certain medications or medical conditions. It can also be caused by emotional stressors such as depression or anxiety.

White Blood Cell

White blood cells are an important part of the immune system. They help the body fight infection and disease. There are different types of white blood cells, each with a unique role in the immune system. The most common type of white blood cell is neutrophil, which is the first line of defence against infection. They kill bacteria and other foreign invaders by engulfing them and destroying them. Other types of white blood cells include lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Lymphocytes help to produce antibodies that fight infection. Monocytes develop into macrophages, which are specialised cells that eat foreign invaders. Eosinophils help kill parasites and other harmful organisms.


The word "womb" has several different meanings in medicine. It can refer to the uterus, which is the organ where a baby grows during pregnancy. It can also refer to the Fallopian tubes, which are the two tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. In pregnancy, the womb is where the baby grows. The baby is attached to the wall of the womb by the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the baby. The womb also contains amniotic fluid, which protects the baby from bumps and jolts.

Women's Health

Women's health refers to the health of women of all ages, including physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. It encompasses a wide range of issues, from reproductive health and contraception to sexual violence and eating disorders. There are many things that people can do to support women's health. This includes ensuring that women have access to quality health care, including preventive care and screenings. It also means promoting healthy behaviours, such as exercise and eating a healthy diet. Additionally, it is important to create an environment that is free from violence and discrimination.



X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation with a relatively short wavelength. This means that they can penetrate through the human body, which makes them useful for imaging purposes. X-rays are widely used in medicine for a variety of purposes, including diagnosing broken bones, detecting tumours, and looking for foreign objects in the body.

XX and XY Chromosomes

XX and XY chromosomes are found in both men and women. Men have one X and one Y chromosome, while women have two X chromosomes. In medicine, XX and XY chromosomes are used to refer to the genetic makeup of a person. This can be used to determine if someone is a carrier of a genetic disorder or to predict how a person will respond to certain medications.


Yeast infection

A yeast infection is a common condition that can affect both men and women. It is caused by a fungus called "Candida albicans", a type of yeast that normally lives on the skin and in the gut. When there is an overgrowth of this fungus, it can cause an infection.Symptoms of a yeast infection include itching, burning, and redness in the affected area. There may also be a discharge from the vagina or penis. Yeast infections are usually treated with antifungal medications. These can be taken orally or applied to the affected area. In some cases, you may need to take these medications for several weeks to get rid of the infection completely.



Zinc is an essential mineral that is found in every cell of the human body. It plays a vital role in many aspects of human health, including immune function, growth and development, wound healing, and more. Zinc is also necessary for the proper function of over 300 enzymes in the body. While we need zinc for good health, our bodies cannot produce it on their own. Therefore, we must get zinc from our diet or from supplements. Zinc supplements are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and powders.